Aging is a process that occurs naturally and with aging comes changes in skin properties including morphology, physiology and mechanical properties. These changes result in the appearance of fine lines or wrinkles on the face, neck, hands, and upper arms. The amount of wrinkles found varies from person to person depending on factors such as sun exposure, lifestyle and diet.
The skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis (outer layer), the dermis (middle layer) and the subcutaneous tissue (fatty bottom layer). As a person ages all three of these layers go through considerable transformations but the most significant occur in the top two layers. The epidermal cells become thinner causing noticeable differences in transparency and moisture.
Another essential portion of the skin is the extracellular matrix. This is primarily composed of proteoglycans which are made up of a protein bonded to a carbohydrate. The most common carbohydrate in this combination is a glycosaminoglycan. Glycosaminoglycans carry a negative charge with allows them to have a high affinity for water while their structure allows them to occupy a large volume in relation to their mass. This combination of properties may cause them to retain water and plump efficiently.
One of the most abundant glycosaminoglycans in the skin is hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. It is one of the chief components of the extracellular matrix contributing significantly to cell proliferation and migration. Commonly used in cosmetic formulations, hyaluronic acid readily binds moisture in the skin boosting moisturization and plumping the surrounding tissues. Injections of hyaluronic acid are commonly used today by plastic surgeons to temporarily fill and smooth wrinkles by adding volume under the skin.
Hyaluronic Acid was designed help maintain the optimal structure of the skin while moisturizing and plumping to help reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. The anti-aging benefits of hyaluronic acid conditions and moisturize the skin as well as adding anti-aging benefits.